Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is a special therapy in which cells are taken from the bone marrow (stem cells), filtered and are provided back either to the donor (patient) or another person. The main purpose of BHT is to infuse healthy bone marrow cells into a person after his own unhealthy bone marrow has been treated to kill abnormal cells.
It has been used successfully to work against diseases such as Leukemia, Lymphomas, Aplastic Anemia, Immune Deficiency Disorders, and some tumour cancers. Bone marrow transplant can be of different types depending upon the nature of the disease; a donor is suffering with. The types include—Autologous bone marrow transplant, in which stem cells are taken from the patient either by bone marrow harvest or apheresis, frozen and then given back to the patient; Allogeneic bone marrow transplant in which donor shares the same genetic type as the patient; and Umbilical cord blood marrow transplant in which stem cells are taken immediately from an umbilical cord after the delivery of an infant.
Leukaemia is the most common disease which makes its sufferers goes through BMT. It is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow in which a person suffers from an abnormal production of blood cells, usually leukocytes. It can be of four types—Chronic, acute, lymphocytic and myelogenous. Acute is a rapidly advancing disease that results in the accumulation of immature cells in the bone marrow and blood; Chronic advances more slowly and allows the production of more mature & useful cells; Lymphocytic as in the type in which cancerous transformation occurs in the marrow cells that further go on to produce leukocytes; and the Myelogenous in which cancerous change occurs in marrow cells that go further on to produce RBCs, and platelets.
The symptoms of Leukemia include poor blood clotting, affectedimmune system, Anaemia, fever, chills, and tiredness. There are many causes that are responsible for this disease, some of them include—artificial ionizing radiation, viruses like HIV, benzene and petrochemicals and hair dyes.
One of the common treatments to treat this lethal disease is BMT. Patients are briefly examined by doctors to make sure if they are suitable for the transplant or not. Furthermore, a long-term outlook for bone marrow transplantation is hard to give, when it depends on thetype of transplant/disease, theresponseofdisease to it and genetics.